Saturday, 31 May 2014

How To Tell Someone's Age By Their Name

I read an article yesterday on The Daily Mail by Mark Prigg about being able to tell somebody's age just by knowing their name.

Researchers found out that the median living Mildred in the United States is now 78 years old, aswell as Gladys, Betty, Ethel and Opal being all of a similar age.

They also said that they found Madison, Sydney, Alexa and Hailey would most likely to be between 9 and 12 years old.

Read more HERE.

Wednesday, 28 May 2014


"The Meeting of Leo the Great and Attila" by Raphael

Origin: Gothic
Meaning: "little father"
Gender: Masculine
Pronunciation: ə-TIL-ə

The origin of Attila comes from the Gothic atta meaning "father" and a diminutive suffix, -ila.
Attila the Hun was a 5th-century ruler of the Huns, and the leader of the Hunnic Empire. He invaded and ravaged Europe before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in Gaul. Subsequently, he invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome. He planned campaigns against the Romans until his death in 453.

The Germanic variation, Etzel, was used in a medieval German saga the Nibelungenlied. In the story, the character Etzel is a fictional version of Attila the Hun.

   Related names:

Atila - Turkish, Spanish (m)
Atilay - Turkish (m)
Atilla - Turkish (m)
Edsel - Various (m)
Etel - Hungarian (f)
Etele - Hungarian (m)
Etelka - Hungarian (f)
Etzel - Germanic (m)

Attila is ranked #21 in Hungary.

Tuesday, 27 May 2014


"La Cibeles" by Alicia Valero Arean

Origin: Phrygian
Meaning: "mountain mother"
Gender: feminine
Ponunciation: SIB-ə-lee

The meaning of Cybele comes from the Phrygian Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya meaning "Kubeleyan mother" or "mountain mother". Altough one source says it could come from Phrygian roots meaning either "stone" or "hair".

Originally, Cybele was an Anatolian mother goddess, but was later adapted by the Greeks when they took Anatolia as a colony. She was partially assimilated to aspects of Gaia, Rhea, and Demeter. She was a foreign goddess, and her rites and processions depicted her arriving in a lion-drawn chariot to the accompaniment of wild music, wine, and a disorderly, ecstatic following. Uniquely in Greek religion, she had a eunuch consort named Attis, who was probably a Greek invention.

In Rome, Cybele was known as Magna Mater, which is Latin for "Great Mother". The Romans adopted her cult during Rome's second war against Carthage, after the Sibylline oracle recommended her conscription as a key religious component in the war. Her most important festival was Hilaria which commemorated the death of Attis and Cybele's rebirth.

In the city of Madrid in Spain, there is the Cibeles Fountain, located in Plaza de Cibeles, which was named after Cybele, and is seen as one of Madrid's most important symbols.

   Related names:

Cibele - Spanish
Kyveli - Greek

A Rose By Any Other Name

"The Soul of The Rose" or "My Sweet Rose" by John William Waterhouse

The name Rose comes from a Norman form of a Germanic name composed of the elements hrod meaning "fame" and heid meaning "kind, sort, type". It was originally spelled Roese or Rohese. It has been associated with the Late Latin rosa meaning "rose". It fell out of use during the Middle Ages but was revived during the 19th Century as a flower name.

   The name Rose in other languages:

Bryluen - Cornish
Gül - Turkish
Kolab - Khmer
Kulap - Thai
Mawar - Indonesian
Raisa - Yiddish
Rhoda - Greek
Rhosyn - Welsh
Rohese/Rohesia - Medieval English
Róis/Róisin - Irish
Roos - Dutch
Rosa - Latin, Spanish
Róża - Polish
Roza - Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Slovene
Rožė - Lithuanian
Rózsa - Hungarian
Rozenn - Breton
Ruža - Croatian, Serbian
Růžena - Czech
Vardo - Georgian
Vered - Hebrew

   Name days:

France: August 23

Rose is ranked #224 in the United States, #78 in England, #55 in Australia, #45 in France, #100 in Ireland, #67 in New Zealand, #55 in Northern Ireland, and #83 in Scotland

Sunday, 25 May 2014


"Nerissa" by John William Godward

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: ner-ISS-ah, nah-RIS-ah

The name Nerissa was created by Shakespeare for a character in his play The Merchant of Venice. He possibly took it from the Greek meaning "nymph, sea sprite", which comes from the name Nereus meaning "water" in Greek. In Greek Mythology Nereus was the father of the Nereids.

   Related names:

Nereida - Spanish

Thursday, 22 May 2014


"Walk in New York" by Maja Wronska

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: MAY-ə, MIE-ə

The name Maya has different meanings; it can come from the Sanskrit meaning "illusion", the name of the mother of Siddhartha Gautama in Buddhist tradition and an alternate name of the Hindu goddess Durga. It can also come from the Hebrew mayim meaning "water". In Old Persian it means "generous". In the Nepali language, Maya means "love."

Maya is also a variant of Maia, a name of unknown meaning. In Greek and Roman mythology Maya was the eldest of the Pleiades and the mother of Hermes.

The name can be used to refer to the Mayans, a culture in Southeastern Mexico and parts of Central America.

In Spanish speaking countries, Maya is used as a short form of Amalia or the Basque name Amaya. The variation Maja, can aslo be used as a short form of Maria or Mary in Germany, Poland, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, and Scandinavian countries.

   Related names:

Maia - Georgian (f)
Maj - Slovene (m)
Maja - Croatian, Danish, German, Norwegian, Polish, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish (f)
   Name days:

Bulgaria: May 1

Maya is ranked #72 in the United States, #53 in England/Wales, #19 in Canada, #50 in Australia, #72 in Belgium, #79 in France, #80 in Ireland, #207 in Netherlands, #87 in Norway, and #56 in Scotland.


James Dean in "Rebel Without a Cause"

Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: DEEN

The name Dean comes from the  Middle English dene meaning "valley". Although it also derived from the occupational surname meaning "dean", which comes from the Middle English deen, ultimately derived from the Latin decanus meaning "chief of ten".

It was the surname of actor James Dean. Dean Winchester is a character in the TV show Supernatural. Another character is Dean Thomas in the Harry Potter series.

   Related names:

Dane - English (m)
Deana - English (f)
Deanna - English (f)
Deanne - English (f)
Deena - English (f)
Dena - English (f)
Dene - English (m)

Dean is ranked #238 in the United States, #378 in England/Wales, and #59 in Netherlands.

Sunday, 18 May 2014


"Saint Eulalia" by John William Waterhouse

Origin: Greek
Meaning: "to talk well"
Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: yoo-LAY-lee-ə

This was the name of a 4th-century saint and martyr of Mérida. When she died a dove flew out of her mouth, and it started to snow to cover her nakedness, its whiteness indicating her sainthood. Some people say that Saint Eulalia of Barcelona is the same person as Saint Eulalia of Mérida, whose story is similar.

   Related names:

Eulália - Hungarian
Eulàlia - Catalan
Eulalie - French
Olalla - Spanish

   Name days:

Poland: February 12

Saturday, 17 May 2014


Emma Stone as Gwen Stacy in "The Amazing Spider-Man"

Origin: Welsh
Meaning: "white ring"
Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: GWEN-də-lin

Gwendolyn is a variation of the name Welsh name Gwendolen. It is the name of Gwendolyn Brooks, the first African-American woman to win a Pulitzer prize for poetry and the full name of Gwen Stacy, Spider-Man's first true love in the Marvel Comics.

The original spelling, Gwendolen, is the name of characters in George Eliot's novel Daniel Deronda and in the Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest.

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Gwendolen was the first queen regnant of the Britons. She was the wife of King Locrinus until she defeated him in battle and took on the leadership of the Britons.

   Related names:

Guendolen - English
Gwen - English, Welsh
Gwendolen - Welsh
Gwendoline - Welsh, French, Enlgish

Gwendolyn is ranked #472 in the United States.

Thursday, 15 May 2014


"The Baleful Head" by Edward Burne-Jones

Origin: Greek
Meaning: "to destroy"
Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: PUR-see-əs

In Greek mythology, Perseus was the demigod son of Zeus and Danaë. When Danaë's father, the King of Argos, recieved a prophecy that he would be killed by his daughter's son, he imprisoned her in a bronze chamber. But Zeus was so drawn to Danaë that he came to her in to form of a golden shower and impregnated her. When Perseus was born, The King locked him and Danaë in a chest and threw them at sea, where they washed up on the island of Seriphos.

Perseus was the founder of the Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty of Danaans. He beheaded the Gorgon Medusa and saved the princess Andromeda, whose mother boasted about her daughter's beauty being equal to the Nereids, which angered Poseidon, who released a sea monster named Cetus to ravage the kingdom until Andromeda was given to him, so she was chained to a rock where Perseus slayed the monster and married her.

   Related names:

Perseo - Spanish, Italian

Wednesday, 14 May 2014


"Imogen" by Herbert Gustave Schmalz

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: IM-ə-jən

The name Imogen was created by Shakespeare for a princess in his play Cymbeline. He ment to use the name Innogen, after a British legendary figure, the wife of king Brutus, but the name was misprinted and never corrected.

Innogen is probably derived from the Old Irish ingen meaning "daughter" or "maiden".

   Related names:

Imogene - English (f)

Imogen is ranked #37 in England/Wales, #55 in Australia, #90 in New Zealand, and #70 in Scotland.


"Saint Apollonia" by James C. Christensen

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: ah-poh-LOHN-ee-yah, AHP-lone-ee-ah

Apollonia is the feminine form of Apollonios, which comes from an ancient Greek name derived from Apollo, a name of unknown meaning, probably related to the Indo European apelo "strengh". The Greeks often associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb apollymi meaning "to destroy".

This is the name of an early Christian saint and martyr, who, according to legend, her torture consisted of having her teeth pulled out or shattered, which is why she is regarded as the patroness of dentistry and those suffering from toothache or other dental problems.

   Related names:

Abelone - Danish (f)
Apolena - Czech, Slovak (f)
Apolline - French (f)
Apollon - Greek (m)
Apolónia - Portuguese (f)
Apolônia - Brazilian Portuguese (f)
Apolonia - Polish (f)
Apolonija - Slovene (f)

Name days:

Hungary: July 7

Tuesday, 13 May 2014


"Penelope and the Suitors" by John William Waterhouse

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: pə-NEL-ə-pee

The name Penelope is possibly derived from the Greek penelops, a type of bird. However, it is usually seen as the combination of the Greek pene "threads, weft" and ops "face".

In Homer's Odyssey, Penelope is the faithful wife of Odysseus, who fends off suitors while her husband is fighting in Troy. She would pretend to be weaving a burial shroud for Odysseus's father, saying she will choose suitor when she is finished, and every night for three years, she undoes part of the shroud, until Melantho, one of her serving women, discovers her trick and reveals it to the suitors.

   Related names:

Pénélope - French (f)

Penelope is ranked #56 in the United States, #209 in England/Wales, and #321 in France.


Ben Barnes as Dorian in "The Picture of Dorian Gray"

Origin: Greek
Meaning: "from Doris"
Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: DAWR-ee-ən

Although the name is Greek meaning "from Doris", it can also come from the Gaelic name Doireann meaning "tempestuous weather". The name was created by Oscar Wilde for his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray. The Dorians were also one of the four mayor Greek tribes.

   Related names:

Doria - English (f)
Doriane - French (f)
Doriano - Italian (m)
Dorijan - Croatian (m)
Dorin - Romanian (m)
Dorina - Romanian (f)

Dorian is ranked #554 in the United States, #48 in Croatia, #114 in France, and #291 in Netherlands.

Monday, 12 May 2014

The Variations of Alexander

"Alexander the Great in the Temple of Jerusalem" by Sebastiano Conca

Alexander is the latinized form of the Greek name Alexandros meaning "defender of men". This is another name for the Greek hero Paris, as well as the name of several characters in the New Testament and Alexander the Great, king of Macedon. The name has been used by several kings of Scotland, Poland and Yugoslavia, emperors of Russia, and eight popes.

Alexandra, a feminine form of Alexander, was an epithet of the Greek goddess Hera. It is the name of several early Christian saints, and of the wife of Nicholas II, the last czar of Russia.


Alasdair - Scottish
Alastair - Scottish
Alastar - Irish
Alec - English
Aleĉjo - Esperanto
Aleister - Gaelic
Alejandro - Spanish
Aleks - Slovene
Aleksandar - Bulgarian, Macedonian, Croatian, Serbian
Aleksander - Polish, Slovene, Albanian, Estonian, Norwegian, Danish
Aleksandr - Russian, Armenian
Aleksandras - Lithuanian
Aleksandre - Georgian
Aleksandro - Esperanto
Aleksandru - Medieval Slavic
Aleksanteri - Finnish
Aleš - Czech, Slovak, Slovene
Alesander - Basque
Alessandro - Italian
Àlex - Catalan
Alexandr - Czech
Alexandre - French, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan
Alexandros - Greek
Alexandru - Romanian

Alistair - Scottish
Alister - Scottish
Eskandar - Iranian
Iskandar - Arabic, Indonesian
İskender - Turkish
Lex - English, Dutch
Olek - Ukrainian, Polish
Oleksander - Ukrainian
Oleksandr - Ukrainian
Samppa - Finnish
Sander - Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Sandi - Croatian, Slovene
Sándor - Hungarian
Sandro - Italian, Georgian
Sandu - Romanian
Santeri - Finnish
Santtu - Finnish
Sanyi - Hungarian
Sasho - Macedonian
Sašo - Slovene
Sawney - Scottish
Sender - Yiddish
Sikandar - Pakistani, Urdu, Pashto 
Skandar - Arabic, Indonesian
Skender - Albanian
Xander - Dutch, English
Xandinho - Portuguese
Zander - English


Alastríona - Irish
Alejandra - Spanish
Aleksandra - Russian, Polish, Serbian, Bulgarian, Slovene, Croatian, Macedonian, Estonian
Aleksandrina - Russian, Bulgarian
Alessa - Italian
Alessandra - Italian
Alexa - English
Alexandrea - English
Alexandrie - French
Alexandrina - Portuguese, English
Alexandrine - French, German
Alexina - English
Alixandre - Medieval French
Alyx - English
Lesya - Ukrainian

Lexa - English
Ola - Polish
Oleksandra - Ukrainian
Sanda - Romanian
Sandie - English
Sandra - Italian, English, French, Portuguese, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Romanian
Sandrine - French
Sashka - Macedonian
Sassa - Swedish
Saundra - Scottish
Sondra - English
Szandra - Hungarian
Xandra - Dutch
Zandra - English
Zena - English

Ale - Finnish, Italian, Spanish
Alex - English, Dutch, German, French, Portuguese
Sacha - French
Saša - Croatian, Serbian, Slovene
Sascha - German
Sasha - Russian
Sandy - English
Shura - Russian

Alexander is ranked #8 in the United States, #27 in England/Wales, #7 in Canada, #14 in Australia, #11 in Austria, #21 in Belgium, #44 in Chile, #12 in Denmark, #93 in Hungary, #3 in Iceland, #54 in Irelan, #81 in Netherlands, #27 in New Zealand, #49 in Northern Ireland, #21 in Norway, #7 in Scotland, and #8 in Sweden.

Sunday, 11 May 2014


"Proserpine" by Dante Gabriel Rossetti

Origin: Latin
Meaning: "to emerge"
Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: prə-SƏR-pə-nə, or praw-SƏR-pee-nuh

Proserpina is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Persephone. She is the daughter of Ceres, a fertily goddess, and Jupiter, the king of the Gods. Her mother kept her sheltered away from the other Gods, but somehow the Pluto or Hades, the ruler of the Underworld managed to see her and fall in love with her. Jupiter, told Pluto that he could take Proserpina, since her mother would most likely not her go with Pluto. When Pluto took Proserpina, her mother became so sad that she forbid the plants from growing. Jupiter, pressured by the other gods and the cries of the starving mortals, forced Pluto to bring Proserpina back. But Pluto had already tricked Proserpina into eating a kernel of pomegranate. Therefore, when she was rescued, she was still obligated to spend six months in the Underworld, and the remaining time above, which brought the coming and going of the seasons.

Proserpina's kidnapping by the god of the Underworld is often described as the Rape of Proserpina, or the Rape of Persephone.

   Related names:

Proserpine - Roman Mythology, French


"Hermia and Helena" by Washington Allston

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: HER-mee-ah

Hermia is the feminine form of the name Hermes, a Greek name possibly meaning "cairn, pile of stones". In Greek Mythology, Hermes is the god of boundaries, travel, communication, trade, thievery, trickery, language, writing, diplomacy, athletics, and animal husbandry.

Hermia is a character in Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Saturday, 10 May 2014


"Queen Zenobia's Last Look Upon Palmyra" by Herbert Gustave Schmalz

Origin: Greek
Meaning: "life of Zeus"
Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: zə-NO-bee-ə

Zenobia was a 3rd century Queen of the Palmyra, who after leading a famous revolt against the Roman Empire and claiming the title "Queen of the East", she was defeated by emperor Aurelian.

   Related names:

Zena - English (f)
Zenobios - Ancient Greek (m)
Zenovia - Greek (f)
Zinovia - Greek (f)
Zinoviy - Russian (m)
Zinoviya - Russian (f)

   Name days:

Poland: October 30

Friday, 9 May 2014


"Noah's Sacrifice" by Daniel Maclise

The list of U.S. Most Popular Names of 2013 came out today and Noah is the number 1 name for boys.

There are two different derivations of the name Noah (both pronounced NO-ə), one masculine and one feminine. Lets start with the masculine one:

The masculine Noah is derived from the Hebrew Noach which means "rest, comfort". In the Old Testament, Noah was given instructions by God to build the Ark which allowed him, his family and a remnant of all the world's animals to survive the great Flood. After the Flood he received the sign of the rainbow as a covenant from God.

   Related names:

Noak - Swedish
Noe - Biblical Latin, Biblical Greek
Noé - French, Spanish, Portuguese
Nojus - Lithuanian
Nooa - Finnish

The feminine Noah comes from the Hebrew No'ah meaning "motion". In the Old Testament this is the name of one of the five daughters of Zelophehad.

Related names:

Noa - Hebrew, Biblical

Noah is ranked #14 in England/Wales, #6 in Canada, #4 in Australia, #23 in Austria, #3 in Belgium, #4 in Denmark, #16 in France, #19 in Ireland, #14 in Netherlands, #9 in New Zealand, #10 Northern Ireland, #10 in Norway, #29 in Scotland, and #28 in Sweden.

Thursday, 8 May 2014


Theoderic the Great

Origin: Germanic
Meaning: "ruler of the people"
Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: thee-AHD-ə-rik

Theoderic the Great was a 6th-century king of the Ostrogoths, ruler of Italy, regent of the Visigoths, and a viceroy of the Eastern Roman Empire. The Gothic original may have been Þiudreiks.

   Related names:

Dedrick - African American (m)
Derek - English (m)
Derrick - English (m
Diederich - German (m)
Diederick - Dutch (m)
Dietrich - German (m)
Teutorigos - Ancient Germanic (m)
Theoderich - Ancient Germanic (m)
Theodoricus - Latinized Germanic (m)
Theudericus - Latinized Germanic (m)
Þeutrich - Ancient Germanic (m)
Thierry - French (m)
Þiudreiks - Ancient Germanic (m)
Tiede - Frisian, Dutch (m)
Tielo - Medieval German (m)
Tilo - German
Tudor - Welsh
Tudur - Welsh


Left Side of The Wilton Diptych. Edmund the Martyr is shown with Edward the Confessor, John the Baptist and Richard II. 

Origin: Old English
Meaning: "rich protector"
Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: ED-mənd (English), ED-muwnt (German, Polish)

Edmund was the name of two Anglo-Saxon kings of England. It was used by several saints, one of which is Edmund the Martyr, a king of East Anglia who was shot to death by arrows after refusing to divide his kingdom with the Vikings.

Edmund Bertram is a character in Jane Austen's Mansfield Park. In The Chronicles of Narnia by C. S. Lewis, Edmund Pevensie was one of the two kings of Narnia. The name was also used in Shakespeare's King Lear. Edmund Spenser was an English poet.

   Related names:

Eadmund - Anglo-Saxon (m)
Éamon - Irish (m)
Eamon - Irish (m)
Éamonn - Irish (m)
Edmao - Limburgish (m)
Edmé - French (m)
Edmée - French (f)
Edmond- French (m)
Edmonda - Italian (f)
Edmondo - Italian (m)
Edmundo - Spanish, Portuguese (m)
Ödön - Hungarian (m)


"Study for The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania" by Joseph Noel Paton

Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: O-bər-ahn

Oberon is a variation of the name Auberon, a Norman French derivative of the Germanic Alberich meaning "elf power".

Oberon is best known as a character in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, where he is the king of the fairies. The name Alberich appears in Germanic mythology as a sorcerer king of the dwarves.

   Related names:

Alberic - Germanic (m)
Alberico - Italian (m)
Auberon - English (m)
Aubrey - English (m&f)
Avery - English (m&f)

Tuesday, 6 May 2014

The Many Variations of Elizabeth

Queen Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth comes from Elisabet, the Greek form of the Hebrew name Elisheva which means "my God is an oath" or "my God is abundance". The name Elisheba appears in the Old Testament as the wife of Aaron, and the Greek form Elizabeth as the mother of John the Baptist.

This is the name of the daughter King Andrew II of Hungary, Saint Elizabeth of Hungary. It was the name of Queen Elizabeth I, and is the name of the current British queen, Elizabeth II.


Alžbĕta - Czech
Alžbeta - Slovak
Babette - French
Beileag - Scottish
Belinha - Portuguese
Bethan - Welsh
Betje - Dutch, Limburgish
Bötzsi - Hungarian
Ealasaid - Scottish
Ealisaid - Manx
Eilís - Irish
Elish - Irish
Eliisa - Finnish
Eliisabet - Estonia
Elikapeka - Hawaiian
Elisa - German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Finnish, English
Elisabed - Georgian
Elísabet - Icelandic
Elisabet - Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Biblical Greek
Elisabeta - Romanian
Elisabete - Portuguese
Élisabeth - French
Elisabeth - German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, Biblical Latin
Elisabeti - Old Church Slavic
Elisabetta - Italian
Elisavet - Greek
Elisaveta - Bulgarian, Macedonian
Élise - French
Elise - German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, English
Elisheba - Biblical Hebrew
Elisheva - Hebrew
Eliška - Czech, Slovak
Eliso - Georgian
Elissa - English
Elixabete - Basque
Eliza - English, Polish
Elizabeta - Slovene, Croatian
Elizaveta - Russian
Elsa - English, German, Swedish, Finnish, Italian
Else - Danish, Norwegian, German, Dutch
Elsje - Dutch
Elspet - Scottish
Elspeth - Scottish
Elžbieta - Lithuanian
Elżbieta - Polish
Elzė - Lithuanian
Erzsébet - Hungarian
Ilsa - German
Ilse - German, Dutch
Isabèl - Occitan
Isabel - Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, German
Isabela - Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian
Isabell - German
Isabella - Italian, German, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Romanian
Isabelle - French, English, German, Dutch
Iseabail - Scottish
Ishbel - Scottish
Isibéal - Irish
Isobel - Scottish
Izabela - Polish, Czech
Izabella - Hungarian, Polish
Jelisaveta - Serbian
Leanna - English
Liana - Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, English
Liesel - German
Liesbeth - Dutch
Liesje - Dutch
Liesl - German
Liisa - Finnish, Estonian
Liisi - Finnish
Liisu - Estonian
Lijsbeth - Dutch
Lileas - Scottish
Lílian - Brazilian Portuguese
Lilian - English, French
Liliána - Hungarian
Liliana - Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Polish, English
Liliane - French
Lilias - Scottish
Lilijana - Slovene
Liljana - Macedonian
Lillian - English
Lillias - Scottish
Lilyana - Bulgarian
Lisa - English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Italian
Lisanne - Dutch
Lisbet - Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
Lisbeth - German
Lise - French, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English
Lizaveta - Russian
Lysanne - Dutch
Sabela - Galician
Sibéal - Irish
Špela - Slovene
Yelizaveta - Russian
Yelyzaveta - Ukrainian
Ysabel - Spanish
Zabel - Armenian
Zsóka - Hungarian


Elian - Dutch

Elizabeth is ranked #10 in the United States, #38 of England/Wales, #26 in Canada, #41 in Australia, #31 in Chile, #71 in Ireland, #180 in Netherlands, #38 in New Zealand, #73 in Northern Ireland, and #72 in Scotland.


"Cloelia Passing the Tiber" by Peter Paul Rubens

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: klo-EE-lee-ah, klo-EEL-yah, klo-EL-ee-ah, or klo-EL-yah

Cloelia is the feminine form of Cloelius, a Roman family name of unknown meaning.

In Roman legend, Cloelia was a maiden that was taken by Lars Porsena along with many others. According to Valerius Maximus, she managed to escape by swimming across the Tiber. Porsena demanded that she returned and the Romans brought her back, but when she returned Porsena was so impressed by her bravery that he allowed her to choose half of the remaining hostages to leave with her.

   Related names:

Clelia - Italian (f)

Monday, 5 May 2014


"Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian" by Il Sodoma

Origin: Latin
Meaning: "from Sebaste"
Gender: Feminine
Pronunciation: ze-BAHS-tee-ahn (German), sə-BAS-chən (English), se-BAHS-tyahn (Polish)

Sebastian comes from the Latin name Sebastianus which means "from Sebaste". Sebaste was the name of a town in Asia Minor, its name deriving from the Greek sebastos "venerable".

Saint Sebastian was 3rd century Christian saint and martyr. He was a Roman soldier, and it is said that he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians. He is the patron saint of soldiers, plague-stricken, archers, holy Christian death and athletes.

It was also borne by a 16th century king of Portugal who died in a crusade against Morocco.

   Related names:

Bastiaan - Dutch (m)
Bastian - German (m)
Bastien - French (m)
Boštjan - Slovene (m)
Sebastiaan - Dutch (m)
Sebastián - Spanish (m)
Sebastiana - Italian (f)
Sebastiano - Italian (m)
Sebastianus - Late Roman (m)
Sebastião - Portuguese (m)
Sébastien - French (m)
Sébastienne - French (f)
Sebastijan - Slovene, Croatian (m)
Sebastjan - Slovene (m)
Sebastyén - Hungarian (m)
Sepi - Finnish (m)
Seppo - Finnish (m)
Sevastian - Russian (m)
Sevastyan - Russian (m)

   Name days:

Germany: January 20
Poland: January 20
Poland: January 30
Poland: February 8
Poland: December 31
Sweden: January 20

Sebastian is ranked #64 in the United States, #41 in England/Wales, #77 in Canada, #39 in Australia, #13 in Austria, #5 in Chile, #97 in Croatia, #16 in Denmark, #352 in Netherlands, #58 in New Zealand, #6 in Norway, #37 in Poland and #61 in Sweden.


"Death of Saint Petronilla" by Simone Pignoni

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: peh-trow-NIH-lah

The name Petronilla is a diminutive of Petronia, the feminine form of Petronius, a Roman family name which possibly comes from the Latin petro, petronis meaning "yokel".

Petronilla is the name of an obscure 1st century Roman saint, traditionally identified as the daughter of Saint Peter. This is the name of Eleanor of Aquitaine's sister, Petronilla of Aquitaine. It was also the name of the queen of Aragon. The Old French variation, Perenelle was the name of the wife and fellow alchemist of Nicolas Flamel.

   Related names:

Parnel - English (f)
Perenelle - Old French (f)
Pernel - English (f)
Pernilla - Swedish (f)
Pernille - Danish, Norwegian (f)
Peronel - English
Peronella - Catalan (f)
Petrona - Spanish (f)
Petronel - English (f)
Petronela - Romanian, Slovak, Polish (f)
Petronella - Dutch, Swedish, German (f)
Petronia - Ancient Roman (f)
Petronilla - Italian, Late Roman (f)
Pétronille - French (f)
Petronius - Ancient Roman (m)
Peyronela - Aragonese (f)
Peyronella - Aragonese (f)
Pietronella - Dutch


"Minerva and The Centaur" by Sandro Botticelli

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: mi-NUR-və

It is possibly derived from the Latin mens meaning "intellect", though it is probably of Etruscan origin.

Minerva was the Roman goddess of of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. She was born from the godhead of Jupiter with weapons. Minerva is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Athena. She is often depicted with her sacred animal, an owl called the "owl of Minerva". She was born out of the forehead of her father, Jupiter.

   Related names:

Etruscan - Menrva (f)


"Saint Ambrose barring Theodosius from Milan Cathedral" by Anthony Van Dyck

Origin: Late Latin
Meaning: "immortal"
Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: AM-broz

Ambrose comes from the Late Latin name Ambrosius which is derived from the Greek Ambrosios meaning "immortal".

Saint Ambrose was a 4th century theologian and archbishop of Milan. He was one of the four original doctors of the Church. He is notable for his influence on Saint Augustine.

   Related names:

Ambrogino - Italian (m)
Ambrogio - Italian (m)
Ambroise - French (m)
Ambroos - Dutch (m)
Ambrosi - Georgian (m)
Ambrosia - Greek (f)
Ambrosine - English (f)
Ambrosió - Portuguese (m)
Ambrosio - Spanish (m)
Ambrož - Slovene (m)
Ambrus - Hungarian (m)
Emrys - Welsh (m)


"Saint Peter Healing Agatha" by Giovanni Lanfranco

Origin: Greek
Meaning: "good"
Gender: Feminine
Pronunciation: AG-ə-thə

Saint Agatha of Sicily is a 3rd century Christian saint and virgin martyr who was tortured and killed because of her refusal to worship Roman Emperors. She is the patron saint of breast cancer patients, martyrs, wet nurses, bell-founders, bakers, fire, earthquakes, and eruptions of Mount Etna.

It is the name of the famous mystery writer, Agatha Christie. Agatha Heterodyne is a character in the online steampunk comic, Girl Genius.

   Related names:

Agafya - Russian (f)
Agáta - Czech (f)
Agata - Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Polish, Slovene, Russian, Croatian, Serbian (f)
Agathe - French, German, Norwegian, Danish, Greek (f)
Agathon - Ancient Greek (m)
Agda - Swedish (f)
Ågot - Norwegian (f)
Ágota - Hungarian (f)
Águeda - Spanish, Portuguese (f)
Jaga - Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian (f)

Sunday, 4 May 2014


Audrey Hepburn

Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: AWD-ree

Today is the 85th anniversary of the birth of Audrey Hepburn, born Audrey Kathleen Ruston, so I thought I would do this post in her honor.

Audrey is a Medieval diminutive of the name Æðelþryð, which is derived from the Old English elements æðel meaning "nobleand þryð "strength".

This was the name of 7th century saint, a princess of East Anglia. It was also used for a character in Shakespeare's comedy As You Like It. Although it is commonly used in girls, it is sometimes used in boys.

   Related names:

Æðelþryð - Anglo-Saxon (f)
Aldreda - Medieval English (f)
Audra - English (f)
Audrea - English (f)
Etheldred - Medieval English (f)
Etheldreda - Medieval English (f)

Audrey is ranked #41 in the United States, #499 in England/Wales, #21 in Canada, #35 in Australia, and #331 in France.

Nicholas' Variations

"Saint Nicholas Saves Three Innocents From Death" by Ilya Repin

Nicholas comes from the Greek Nikolaos meaning "victory of the people" which is derived from the Greek nike "victory" and laos "people". Saint Nicholas was a 4th-century Christian saint and Greek Bishop of Myra in Lycia. He was known for secret gift-giving, he would put coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him, and thus became the model for Santa Claus. He is the patron saint of children, coopers, sailors and merchants, as well as broadcasters, the falsely accused, repentant thieves, pharmacists, archers, and pawnbrokers. The name has been borne by five popes and two czars of Russia.


Claes - Swedish 
Claus - German, Danish 
Col - Medieval English 
Collin - English 
Klaas - Low German, Dutch 
Klaes - Frisian
Klaos - Limburgish
Klas - Swedish 
Klaus - German, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish 
Kolya - Russian
Miklavž - Slovene 
Miklós - Hungarian
Mikołaj - Polish
Mikoláš - Czech
Miksa - Hungarian 
Mikula - Czech
Mikuláš - Slovak, Czech
Mykola - Ukrainian 
Neacel - Scottish 
Neculai - Romanian
Niccolò - Italian 
Nichol - Scottish 
Niĉjo - Esperanto 
Nickolas - English 
Nickolaus - German 
Nicol - Scottish
Nicola - Italian 
Nicolaas - Dutch 
Nicolae - Romanian 
Nicolao - Spanish
Nicolaos - Greek 
Nicolás - Spanish 
Nicolas - French 
Nicolau - Portuguese, Galician, Catalan 
Nicolaus - German, Ancient Greek 
Nicolò - Italian 
Nicuşor - Romanian
Niek - Dutch
Niels - Danish 
Nigul - Estonian 
Niilo - Finnish 
Nikica - Croatian, Serbian 
Niklas - Swedish, Finnish
Niklaus - Swiss German 
Nikola - Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Hungarian, Czech, Basque, Medieval Slavic 
Nikolaas - Dutch
Nikolai - Russian, Bulgarian
Nikolaj - Danish, Slovene 
Nikolajs - Latvian 
Nikolao - Esperanto 
Nikolaos - Greek 
Nikolas - English, Greek 
Nikolaus - German 
Nikolay - Russian, Bulgarian 
Nikolche - Macedonian 
Nikoloz - Georgian 
Nikša - Croatian 
Nikusha - Georgian 
Nioclás - Irish


Colette - French
Coline - French
Klasina - Dutch
Klazina - Dutch
Nichola - English
Nichole - English
Nicol - Czech
Nicola - German, Czech, English
Nicolasa - Spanish
Nicole - French, English, Dutch, German, Czech, Spanish
Nicolet - Dutch
Nicoleta - Romanian
Nicoletta - Italian
Nicolette - French
Nicolina - Italian
NIcoline - French, Dutch
Nikol - Czech, Bulgarian
Nikola - German, Polish, Czech, Slovak
Nikole - Basque, English
Nikoleta - Greek
NIkolett - Hungarian
Nikolina - Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian

Nicholas is ranked #54 in the United States, #149 in England/Wales, #32 in Canada, and #33 in Australia.

Saturday, 3 May 2014


"Pandora" by John William Waterhouse

Origin: Greek
Meaning: "all gifts"
Gender: Feminine
Pronunciation: pan-DAWR-ə

Pandora comes from the combination of the Greek pan meaning "all" and doron meaning "gift".

Pandora is considered the Greek Eve, the bringer of all sorrows to mankind. She was the first woman to be created by the gods, created by Hephaestus and Athena on orders of Zeus to anger Prometheus. When she went to live with men, she was given a sealed jar that contained all the troubles and ills now known by mankind. But soon, Pandora's curiosity overcame her fear of what was inside, and she broke the seal releasing all the evils of humanity.


"Fair Rosamund" by John William Waterhouse

Origin: Germanic
Meaning: "horse protection"
Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: ROZ-ə-mund

In Medieval times, the name Rosamund was thought to be a combination of the Latin rosa meaning "rose" and the Latin munda "pure" or mundi "of the world", so it would mean "pure rose" or "rose of the world". Although it actually comes from the Germanic hros meaning "horse" and mund meaning "protection".

This was the name of the mistress of Henry II, the king of England, Rosamund Clifford, known as "Fair Rosamund" or "Rose of the World".

   Related names:

Ros - English (f)
Rosamond - Germanic (f)
Rosemonde - French (f)
Rosmunda - Ancient Germanic (f)
Roz - English (f)


"The Sack of Rome by The Visigoths on 24 August 410" by J. N. Sylvestre

Origin: Germanic
Meaning: "ruler of all"
Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: AL-ə-rik or uh-LAR-ik

Alaric comes from the Gothic name Alareiks which is derived from the Germanic elements ala meaning "all" and ric meaning "ruler, power".

This is the name of the king of the Visigoths, Alaric I, who sacked Rome in 410 and might have precipitate the fall of Rome. Alaric II succeeded his father as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse, and Alaric is one of the two legendary kings of Sweden.

   Related names:

Alarich - Germanic (m)
Alarico - Spanish, Portuguese (m)
Alaricus - Latin (m)
Alarik - Germanic (m)


"Melisande" by Marianne Stokes

Origin: French
Meaning: "strengh in labour"
Gender: Feminine
Pronunciation: meh-lee-SAHND, meh-luh-SAHND, MEH-lee-sahnd or MEH-luh-sahnd

Mélisande is the French form of the Germanic name Amalasuintha, which comes from the elements amal "work, labour" and swinþ "strength". It was used by Maurice Maeterlinck in his play Pelléas et Mélisande, which was later adapted by Claude Debussy into an opera.

Melisende was Queen of Jerusalem from the 12th century. Amalasuintha was a 6th-century queen of the Ostrogoths.

   Related names:

Amalasuintha - Ancient Germanic (f)
Amalasuntha - Ancient Germanic (f)
Melesina - unknown (f)
Melicent - English (f)
Melisende - Medieval French (f)
Millicent - English (f)


"The Magic Circle" by John William Waterhouse

Origin: Welsh
Meaning: "blessed poetry"
Gender: feminine
Pronunciation: ke-RID-wen

Ceridwen is the name of a Welsh witch and goddess. She was the mother the beautiful daughter, Creirwy and the hideous son, Morfran, who was so ugly people called him Afaggdu, meaning "utter darkness". To compensate for Morfran's looks, Ceridwen boiled a cauldron of Poetic Inspiration, called Awen, for a year and a day so that Morfran would become wise and respected, and she set Gwion Bach to watch over the pot. Then, the Awen over-heated a bit and caused three drops to fall on Gwion Bach's thumb, and he unthinkingly sucked it. But in that moment that the Awen was ready, and Gwion Bach received the magic of the Awen.

When Ceridwen found out, she set after him. She almost caught him when he turned into a hare, so Ceridwen turned into a hound and kept chasing after him. While near a stream, Ceridwen almost caught him when he turned into a salmon, so she turned into and otter and chased after him. Again, she almost caught him, but he turned into a swift and flew up the sky, so Ceridwen turned into a hawk. Gwion Bach realizing he would never outrun her, saw a pile of grain, and fell from the sky, turned into a grain of wheat and fell in the pile, so Ceridwen flew down and turned to a hen, and pecked him. It was then when Gwion Bach began to grow inside her as a baby, Taliesin, and when he was born Ceridwen sewed him up in a bag and dropped him in a river.

   Related names:

Cerridwen - Welsh (f)
Cerridwyn - Welsh (f)
Cyrridven - Welsh (f)
Keridwen - Welsh (f)
Kerridwen - Welsh (f)


Orion as depicted in the constellation cards "Urania's Mirror"

Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: o-RIE-ən

Meaning unknown, it could possibly come from the Greek horion meaning "boundary, limit". Another source says it could be based of the Akkadian term Ura-anna, meaning "the light of heaven".

In Greek mythology, Orion was the giant hunter son of Poseidon who could walk through the oceans with his feat on the seabed and head above the waves. Like his brother Polyphemus, he was blinded in a quarrel, but his eyes where healed by the radiance of the sun of Helios.

There are several myths concerning how he died. According to one myth, the love that Eos, the goddess of dawn, felt for Orion was so strong that it caused her jealousy until the goddess Artemis was persuaded to shoot him in an arrow on behalf of the gods. He was then sent to the stars in form of a constellation. Another myth says that he got killed by a scorpion sent by Gaia.

Orion is a constellation on the celestial equator and is visible throughout the world. It is one of the most recognizable constellations. Orion of Thebes was a scholar who taught in Egypt. It is also the name of Sirius Black's father in the Harry Potter series.

Orion is ranked #419 in the United States.

Friday, 2 May 2014

Stephen's Variations

"Saint Stephen" by Giacomo Cavedone

Stephen come from the Greek Stephanos which means "crown". Saint Stephen is considered the first Christian martyr. This was the name several of kings of England, Serbia, and Poland, as well as ten popes. It is also the name of the first Christian king of Hungary.


Estavan - Spanish
Esteban - Spanish
Estebe - Basque
Estevão - Portuguese
Estève - Occitan
Esteve - Catalan
Estevo - Galician
Estienne - Medieval French
Étienne - French
Eztebe - Basque
Fane - Romanian
István - Hungarian
Pista - Hungarian
Pisti - Hungarian
Staffan - Swedish
Steafan - Scottish
Steaphan - Scottish
Steenie - Scottish
Štefan - Slovene, Slovak, Croatian
Ştefan - Romanian
Stefan - German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Dutch, Polish, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian
Stefano - Italian
Stefanos - Greek

Stefans - Latvian
Stefanu - Slavic
Stefanus - Dutch
Steffan - Welsh
Steffen - German, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch
Štĕpán - Czech
Stepan - Russian, Armenian
Stepane - Georgian
Stephan - German, Dutch
Stéphane - French
Stephanos - Greek
Stephanus - Latin
Steponas - Lithuanian
Stevan - Serbian, Croatian
Steven - English, Dutch
Stevo - Serbian, Croatian
Stiofán - Irish
Stipan - Croatian
Stipe - Croatian
Stipo - Croatian
Stjapan - Croatian, Serbian
Szczepan - Polish
Tahvo - Finnish
Tapani - Finnish
Teppo - Finnish
Tipene - Maori

Estefânia - Portuguese
Estefanía - Spanish
Étiennette - French
Fanni - Finnish, Hungarian
Kekepania - Hawaiian
Štefa - Croatian
Stefana - Dutch
Štefánia - Slovak
Ştefania - Romanian
Stefánia - Hungarian
Stefania - Italian, Polish
Stefanie - German, Dutch, Danish
Štefanija - Slovene, Croatian
Stefanija - Macedonian
Stefcia - Polish
Steffi - German
Štefica - Croatian
Štĕpánka - Czech
STephania - English
Stéphanie - French
Stephanie - English, German

Stephen is ranked #252 in the United States, #307 in England/Wales, and #95 in Ireland.


"Loki and Sigyn" by Mårten Eskil Winge

Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: LO-kee

Though the meaning of the name is unknown, it could possibly be derived from the Indo-European root leug meaning "to break".

In North mythology, Loki is the son of the giant Farbauti and Laufey. He is a mischief-maker, trickster and shape-shifter appearing in the shape of a salmon,a seal, a mare and a fly. At first he would do numerous pranks until eventually his jokes became more and more evil.

He brought about the loss and return of Idunn and her apples of youth, without the apples of youth the gods would grow old like everyone else. He would often try to harm Thor, the god of thunder and once cut off the goddess Sif's golden hair.

The last straw was when he tricked the god Hodr into killing his brother Balder. Which was when the gods chained him to a rock until the coming of Ragnarök, the end of the world. While chained, the goddess Skadi put snake above him that would drip venom, which Loki's wife, Sigyn, would collect in a bowl, but when the bowl was full and she would need to empty it, the snakes venoms would drip onto Loki which was said to cause earthquakes.

Loki was married twice, first to the giant Angrboda, with whom he had three children; the wolf Fenrir, the world serpent Jörmungandr, an Hell. With his second wife, Sigyn, he fathered two sons, Vali and Narvi.

   Related names:

Loke - Norse, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish


Origin: Welsh
Meaning: "raven"
Gender: masculine
Pronunciation: BRAHN

In Welsh legend Bran the Blessed was a giant and king of Britain. he was the son of the God Llyr. It's said that his head continued to live on after he was killed. His head is said to be buried underneath the White Tower at the Tower of London, as a talisman against Britain ever being invaded.

In Irish legend Bran was a mariner who was involved in several adventures.

Bran Stark is also a main character in the series Game of Thrones, based on the series A Song of Ice and Fire.

   Related name:

Brân - Welsh (m)

Thursday, 1 May 2014


"Ophelia" by John William Waterhouse

Origin: Greek
Meaning: "help"
Gender: Feminine
Pronunciation: o-FEEL-yə

The name Ophelia was probably created by the poet Jacopo Sannazaro for a character in his poem Arcadia. It was used by Shakespeare for his play Hamlet, in which Ophelia is Hamlet's lover who famously goes insane and drowns herself.

   Related names:

Ofélia - Portuguese (f)
Ofelia - Spanish, Italian (f)
Ophélie - French (f)

Ophelia is ranked #406 in England/Wales.

The Muses

"Apollo and the Muses on Mount Helicon (Parnassus)" by Claude Lorrain

The Muses, from the Roman name Musae, were the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, a Titan whose name means "thought". For the Greeks, the Muses were the goddesses of the inspiration of literature, science and the arts.

Calliope (beautiful voice) - The muse of epic poetry and the mother of Orpheus and Linus.

Clio (glory) - The muse of history. She was said to have introduced the alphabet to Greece.

Erato (lovely) - She is the muse of lyric poetry, especially love and erotic poetry.

Euterpe (delight) - The muse of song and elegiac poetry. She was said to have invented the double flute.

Melpomene (choir) - Initially the muse of singing, she later became the muse of tragedy.

Polyhymnia (much song) - She is the muse of sacred poetry, sacred hymn, dance, and eloquence as well as agriculture and pantomime.

Terpsichore (pleasure in dance) - The muse of dance and chorus.

Thalia (to blossom) - She is the muse of poetry and idyllic poetry. This was also the name of one of the three Graces or Charities.

Urania (heavenly) - The muse of astronomy. She is often associated with Universal Love and the Holy Spirit.


"Morgan le Fay" by Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys

Origin: Old Welsh
Meaning: "sea circle"
Gender: Feminine
Pronunciation:  mawr-GAN-ə

Morgana is the femenine form of the name Morgan, which comes from the Old Welsh masculine name Morcant.

The most famous bearer of the name is perhaps Morgan le Fay, also known as Morgan le Faye, Morgane, Morgaine, Morgana and other names. She is King Arthur's half-sister and Queen of Avalon, the otherworldly Isle of Apples. A gifted sorceress and healer, she is sometimes considered a winter goddess of darkness and death, opposing Arthur, the Lord of Summer. Throughout King Arthur's reign in Britain, Morgan le Fay is often depicted as his enemy, often plotting his downfall. She was also one of the three women who took Arthur's wounded body in a black boat to Avalon following his battle against Sir Mordred's army.

In America, since the 1980's the variation of the name, Morgan, has been more common on girls than on boys, though it is not unheard of for the latter.

   Related names:

Morcant - Ancient Celtic (m)
Morgan - Welsh, English, French (m & f)
Morgane - French (f)